Cosmetic Surgery Enhance Appearances
The procedures, techniques, and principles of cosmetic surgery enhance a patient’s appearance. Improving aesthetic appeal, symmetry, and proportion are the key goals. Aesthetic surgery can be performed on all head, neck, and body areas. Since cosmetic procedures treat areas that function correctly, cosmetic surgery is designated as elective. Cosmetic elective procedures are performed by doctors from various medical fields, including plastic surgeons.
What is Plastic Surgery?
Plastic Surgery: Focused on Repairing Defects to Reconstruct a Normal Function & Appearance
Plastic surgery is a specialty dedicated to reconstructing facial and body defects due to birth disorders, trauma, burns, and disease. Plastic surgery is intended to correct dysfunctional body areas and is, by definition, reconstructive. While many plastic surgeons choose to complete additional training and perform cosmetic surgery, the basis of their surgical training remains reconstructive plastic surgery. In fact, in 1999, the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons changed its name to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons to more strongly communicate the message that “plastic and reconstructive surgeons are the same.
Types of Plastic Surgery Procedures:
- Breast Reconstruction
- Burn Repair Surgery
- Congenital Defect Repair: Cleft Palate, Extremity Defect Repair
- Lower Extremity Reconstruction
- Hand Surgery
- Scar Revision Surgery
Cosmetic Surgery vs. Plastic Surgery
If you have always thought cosmetic surgery and plastic surgery were the same, you are not alone. Many plastic surgeons choose to focus their practice on cosmetic surgery, and as such, the terms are often used interchangeably. However, this is not technically correct. Cosmetics and plastic surgery are closely related specialties, but they are not the same. Cosmetic surgery is where a person chooses to have an operation or invasive medical procedure, to change their physical appearance for cosmetic rather than medical reasons. Non-surgical cosmetic procedures, such as Botox and dermal fillers – typically used to relax or fill crease lines – do not involve surgery. However, there are still risks attached. At the same time, both cosmetic and plastic surgery deal with improving a patient’s body, but the overarching philosophies guiding the training, research, and goals for patient outcomes are different.
Types of Cosmetic Procedures
- Breast Enhancement: Breast Augmentation, Breast Lift, Breast Reduction, GYNECOMASTIA
- Facial Contouring: Rhinoplasty, Ear Correction Surgery
- Facial Rejuvenation: Facelift, Eyelid Lift, Neck Lift, Brow and Forehead Lift
- Body Contouring: Abdomen, Back, Arms, Thigh Shaping
- Skin Rejuvenation: Laser, Radiofrequency, Skin Peel, Botox®, PRP, and Filler and Fat Treatments
Spider and Varicose Veins
Not all patients need treatment for their varicose veins or spider veins. Many people have no pain or other symptoms. For these individuals, no treatment is necessary unless they want the veins removed for cosmetic reasons. There are many different treatments available for varicose veins. These treatments vary based upon the size and location of the varicose veins, the presence of symptoms, or complications. Sclerotherapy, laser and intense-pulsed-light therapy, radiofrequency (RF) or laser ablation, and ambulatory phlebectomy are the modern techniques used to ablate varicosities. Numerous reports describe success rates of greater than 90% for more minor invasive procedures associated with fewer complications with comparable efficacy. The selection of the correct sclerosant and the exact volume and concentration of sclerosant depends on the type and location of disease, internal amount of the vessel to be treated, positioning of the patient, and many other factors. I should always use the minimum effective concentration and volume because sclerosant inevitably passes into the deep venous system, where endothelial injury can lead to disastrous consequences. Now here’s the sad news. Are you wearing a support hose? Yes, we’re talking; the dreaded pantyhose is recommended for anyone with visible veins or for people who have had a procedure done. “Wear them every waking hour,” says Prof Moawad.
The condition can be known medically as bromhidrosis, osmidrosis, fetid sweat, body smell, or malodorous sweating. Humans have two types of sweat glands: eccrine sweat glands and apocrine sweat glands. Eccrine sweat glands are present from birth, while the apocrine glands become activated during puberty. The body odor primarily results from the apocrine sweat glands, which secrete most chemical compounds needed for the skin flora to metabolize it into odorant substances. Body odor is most likely to occur in the following places: feet, groin, armpits, genitalia, pubic hair and other hair, belly button, anus, behind the ears, and the rest of the skin, to a lesser extent. Body odor is usually accompanied by excessive sweating and managed in the same manner. Botox is injected intradermally to treat hyperhidrosis and inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and from the sympathetic nerves that innervate eccrine sweat glands. A new bipolar radiofrequency device can destroy the eccrine glands by thermolysis at the interface of the deep dermis and subcutis. When medical treatment fails, ultrasound and power-assisted liposuction of armpits can gently remove both eccrine and apocrine sweat glands.
Acne scars lead to emotional embarrassment, poor self-esteem, social isolation, low confidence, body image alterations, unemployment, lowered academic performance, and exacerbation of the psychiatric disease of anxiety or depression. Acne scars treatment must consider the cost of treatment, the severity of lesions, physician goals, patient expectations, side-effect profiles, psychological or emotional effects to the patient, and prevention measures. Various treatment modalities range from topical therapies, chemical peelings, micro-needling, or microdermabrasion, subcision, autologous ⁄ non-autologous dermal fillers to energy-based technology such as fractioned ⁄ non-fractionated lasers, ablative/non-ablative lasers, pigment or vascular-specific lasers, and minor surgical procedures. Whatever the choice, it should be clearly understood by both physicians and patients that, at present, improvement of scarring, rather than total cure, is the goal. Any intervention or treatment aims to improve scars, not for a total cure or perfection.
Hair restoration involves moving hair from one area of the body to another for cosmetic improvement. The latest advances in the field, such as the use of smaller grafts, follicular unit extraction or FUE, and novel pain reduction methods, make hair restoration treatment successful, safer, and more comfortable. Hair transplantation is most used for male pattern baldness. Besides, a variety of conditions can be successfully treated with hair transplantation, such as scalp scarring, facial scars due to trauma or surgery, and hair loss due to traction can be repaired with hair transplantation. Finally, hair transplantation can be successfully used to restore hair to the eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, mustache, or goatee area; and even in areas of the body, such as the pubis or chest. The PRP and growth factors are used pre-operatively, intra-operatively, or post-operatively. Added to the scalp where hairs are transplanted, it decreases bleeding and bruising, accelerate healing, and reduces shock hair loss. The injection of nano-fat or enriched micro-fat is performed subcutaneously above the galea and in proximity to the hair bulb, which is the region where stem cells exist.
Men's Cosmetic Surgery
The world places a high value on looking young and fit, that is why cosmetic surgery is up, and men are a big part of the increase. More men today are having cosmetic surgery to help them look younger and attractive. Like their female counterparts, they have discovered the benefits of cosmetic surgery not only personally but also professionally. Men are changing their attitude about several issues that were previously reserved for women. Feeling the need to look youthful and dynamic, well into your 40s, 50s, and 60s has led to men rethinking their attitudes to pills, diet, exercise, face-care products, and cosmetic surgery. In a society that values youth, 50-year-old executives are competing with younger, fitter, and more competitive 30-year-olds, who are often willing to work harder, and for less money. On the home front, men are also finding they want to keep pace with younger-looking wives.
Botox is approved for the treatment of hyperhidrosis in the United States. It is injected intradermally to treat hyperhidrosis and inhibits the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and from the sympathetic nerves that innervate eccrine sweat glands. When performed correctly, patients have little pain or discomfort. Proudly at MSI, a newer bipolar RF device is effective in reducing the amount of sweating. The new bipolar microneedles radiofrequency device can destroy the eccrine glands by thermolysis at the interface of the deep dermis and subcutis while minimizing damage to the surrounding tissue. Fractional radiofrequency treatment is a new safe and effective treatment alternative for mild to moderate primary axillary hyperhidrosis. Prof Moawad suggests repeated sessions of fractional radiofrequency to achieve a complete response. When medical treatment fails, he will offer ultrasound and power-assisted liposuction of armpits to remove sweat glands gently and thoroughly.
Liposuction, the number one cosmetic surgery performed globally, is a procedure removing unwanted lumps, bulges, and areas of resistant fat deposits from specific areas of the body. Patients should be in good health, emotionally stable, and realistic in their expectations. Age is not a consideration, but older patients usually have diminished skin elasticity, thus will not achieve the same results as a younger person with tighter skin. While no method of liposuction is a substitute for proper nutrition and physical exercise, nor is it an alternative for general weight reduction, it is, however, ideal for permanently removing localized areas of fat that are diet and exercise resistant. The most communal areas for treatment include upper thighs (saddlebags), abdomen, flanks (Love handles), and upper arms. Other areas include facial fat accumulations, including a double chin, neck and jowls, breast, hips, buttocks, and knees. I can do cheeks, calves, and ankles, but results are less impressive in these areas. In men, liposuction can be used to correct gynecomastia (enlarged breasts) and, more recently as scarless breast reduction in females. In addition, liposuction is used to remove sweat glands in the underarm to reduce excessive sweating without affecting the body’s ability to cool itself. The application of external ultrasound before liposuction is a technique that applies the transcutaneous application of high-frequency ultrasonic fields delivered into the wetted fatty tissue to melt fat cells and make it easy for extraction. All types of energy (mechanical, ultrasound, laser, and radiofrequency have been combined with liposuction to reduce surgeon effort and improve the result. The “power” in power-assisted/power-tumescent liposuction (mechanical energy) refers to the use of a cannula with a back-and-forth motion of the tip passes through tissue to suction out fat in fibrous (male breast) or the back with reduced effort. Power-assisted liposuction helps skin tightening during the recovery period.
Cutaneous scars are results of earlier surgery trauma, or inflammatory processes, e.g., acne. The injury may be cosmetically distressing or may distort functional anatomy. Thus, the aim of scar revision is the achievement of an aesthetically pleasing or less visible scar. Scars can be categorized by various descriptive characteristics, including contour, shape, length, width, color, and function. Recognition and analysis of these unique characteristics, along with the scars’ location and place, will aid in determining the proper technique or combination of procedures in revising a given scar. The improvement of scars of either cosmetic or functional impairment is the goal of scars revision. Numerous revision procedures are available for the correction of the several types of injuries. No treatment or procedure is effective in correcting all types of scars. Therefore, knowledge and understanding, as well as experience in the use of a variety of techniques, is vital to achieve acceptable results.
Today’s facial surgeons have more options than ever before to rejuvenate the perioral area. It is essential to have a thorough understanding of both perioral anatomy and perceived signs of aging to put the correct treatment plane. The patient and physician need to understand the types of defects that can be improved using noninvasive techniques and those that require a surgical approach. Many products and devices are available to physicians to address these issues and obtain favorable results from dark lips to perioral wrinkles. In general, changes in skin texture, tone, laxity, or pigmentation are treated with chemical peels, lasers, or energy-based solutions. Dermal fillers, Autologous fat, surgical lip implants, botulinum toxin A, and micro-pigmentation are all adjunctive therapies that may be used to augment or rejuvenate the lips. It can modify Orbicularis oculi muscle function via botulinum toxin (BTX) injections or surgery.
Pregnancy can leave lasting—and often unwanted—effects on your appearance, such as sagging breasts, stretched abdominal muscles, and loose, excess skin. Many women are discouraged when their breasts and body do not return to their pre-pregnancy shape, even with a healthy diet and exercise. By addressing unwanted changes of pregnancy and restoring the appearance you want, a mommy makeover can help you feel more like yourself, improving your comfort and self-confidence. A “mommy makeover” is the collective term for a personalized set of cosmetic procedures designed to help a woman address common effects of childbearing and aging on the face, breasts, and body and restore or improve upon her pre-pregnancy appearance. Mommy makeovers can include cosmetic surgery, non-surgical treatments, or a combination of both. Determining the right time for a mommy makeover is mostly a personal decision between you and your cosmetic surgeon. Typically, it is best to wait until you are finished having children before undergoing surgical “lifting” procedures, such as tummy tuck, breast lift, or lower body lift surgery; if you plan to become pregnant again in the future, non-surgical body contouring and skin treatments can be cost-effective options for interim procedures.